The eastern part of the island, where Kalamos peninsula lays, is protected under the EU Natura 2000 conservation scheme. The region has preserved its natural beauty as the steep rocks, cliffs and the absence of roads make access difficult. The entire region, and the Kalamos peninsula in particular, is of great beauty and presents great archaeological interest (mostly the location of Monastery) while there are many caverns that remain undiscovered.
The island is of great avifauna interest, as birds use the area as a migration station. According to the Ornithological Society, Anafi is one of the most important regions regarding the protection of birds in Greece. It hosts a flora rich in common and endemic species (the latter are of great interest as most of them are rare and endemic species of the Aegean Sea).
Anafi’s steep slopes, on the rock of Kalamos and on the rock islets Ftena, Makria and Pachia are home to Eleonora’s falcon, the Aegean hawk. This migratory bird, also known as “varvaki”, arrives to the Mediterranean in April and returns to Madagascar and the other islands of the Pacific Ocean at the end of October to spend the winter. The 85% of Eleonora’s falcon population is reproduced in Greece while it is estimated that Anafi hosts approximately 300 pairs. This area of the Aegean is still home to the rare species of Audouin’s gull, the species of seagull that lives exclusively in the Mediterranean. Audouin’s gull is reproduced on the islets around the island. Many seals find refuge in the northern part of the island.
Anafi has a rich and unique herb variety, particularly in the eastern and southern parts of the island where more than 85 species of garrigue (phrygana) vegetation have been documented. Anafi’s excellent thyme quality boosts beekeeping growth. The spontaneous vegetation of saffron presents a great interest. The morphology of the ground creates several valleys of significant length that end to the beaches.
The island valleys are rich in vegetation and this is where the inhabitants mainly grow the agricultural products. There is an adequate existing surface farmed in terraces, mainly in the north of the island. It is also remarkable that prickly pears and athanatos (agave) have grown between properties, defining the limits of ground used for agriculture.
Anafi as well as Santorini are the only places in Europe with hot desert climates (BWh) according to the Köppen climate classification system (2007).